From WikiTemp, the GBAtemp wiki
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== K ==
 
== K ==
 +
;Kernel mode
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:A mode in which processes have full control over all hardware and may access all memory addresses.
  
 
== L ==
 
== L ==
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;Linked NANDs
 
;Linked NANDs
 
:When dumping the SysNAND to an EmuNAND, both NANDs will share the same folder on the SD card and are considered "linked". While linked, changes done to one will affect the other as well. The NANDs can be unlinked by formatting either NAND, which changes the directory used on the SD card for that NAND.
 
:When dumping the SysNAND to an EmuNAND, both NANDs will share the same folder on the SD card and are considered "linked". While linked, changes done to one will affect the other as well. The NANDs can be unlinked by formatting either NAND, which changes the directory used on the SD card for that NAND.
 +
 +
;Lua
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:A lightweight programming language used for various purposes. Homebrew can be written in this language and run via a Lua interpreter like [[Lua Player Plus]].
  
 
== M ==
 
== M ==
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;ROP
 
;ROP
:[[wikipedia:Return-oriented programming|Return-oriented programming]]. A hacking technique where the attacker takes control over a program's call stack by overwriting the return addresses. This directs the control flow of the program to unintended locations. Multiple returns are chained together with the eventual goal of reaching arbitrary code execution.
+
:[[wikipedia:Return-oriented programming|Return-oriented programming]]. A hacking technique where the attacker gains control over a program's call stack and uses it to overwrite return addresses. This directs the control flow of the program to unintended locations. Multiple returns are chained together with the eventual goal of reaching arbitrary code execution.
  
 
;ROP loader
 
;ROP loader
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;USB
 
;USB
 
:Acronym for "Universal Serial Bus". A connection interface that is now the most common used amongst external computer peripherals, including MP3 players, external hard drives, keyboards and mice. USB is widely used because of its simple connection, easy to use socket, its data transfer speeds and its "plug 'n' play" reliability. Many GBA flash kits use USB.
 
:Acronym for "Universal Serial Bus". A connection interface that is now the most common used amongst external computer peripherals, including MP3 players, external hard drives, keyboards and mice. USB is widely used because of its simple connection, easy to use socket, its data transfer speeds and its "plug 'n' play" reliability. Many GBA flash kits use USB.
 +
 +
;User mode (userland)
 +
:A mode in which processes have limited access to system resources. Specifically, processes may not directly access hardware or use memory dedicated to other processes or the kernel. Most processes run in this mode.
  
 
== V ==
 
== V ==

Revision as of 13:28, 11 September 2015

Contents: Top - # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

0–9

3DMoo
An emulator that emulates a 3DS console. Currently limited to certain 3DS homebrew apps.
.3ds file
Unofficial format used for 3DS ROMs as well as GateWay-compatible homebrew.
.3dsx file
The main format used for 3DS homebrew applications. The "x" stands for executable.
.3dz file
Modified 3DS ROM with an injected header to allow for online play.

A

Alpha
A term given to software very early in development, before it becomes a beta form (See Beta).
ARM9
One of the processors of the 3DS. This is the secondary single core processor. Runs a process called "Process9", which uses the kernel to run commands for ARM11. Used for NDS backwards compatibility. Also responsible for the initial boot, encryption/decryption, and all signature checks.
ARM11
One of the processors of the 3DS. This is the primary dual core (quad core on the new3DS) processor of the system, and handles most tasks. One of the cores is used solely for the Operating System of the console, while the other(s) performs all other tasks.

B

Beta
A software that is incomplete, in development or not in its final form. Beta software may contain many known bugs (See Bug).
Bug
An accidental mistake made in the programming of a piece of software (i.e. a video game), that may cause undesired operation or produce errors or worse. A bug can often be fixed or resolved by applying a patch (see Patch).
Bad ROM/dump
A ROM that has been dumped incorrectly, which may cause it to produce errors during execution or may stop it from working as it should. 'Bad Dumps' almost always require the original cartridge to be dumped again properly to produce a good ROM.

C

C
A popular programming language. It is used for a large variety of purposes, including homebrew development.
C++
A popular programming language that started as an extension of the C language (hence the name, which means C+1 in C). Like C, it has a wide variety of purposes, including homebrew development.
CIA
CTR Importable Archive. Internal format used as a generic data container meant to be installed on the 3DS (similar to WADs on the Wii), though it is usually protected so it can only be installed on 1 specific console. Manual installation is normally done through Dev Menu. All eShop content is in this format.
Cartridge (cart)
A plastic casing containing variable content, for example, a PCB containing a game held on ROM including a backup EEPROM/battery to hold the game save. Here, this term is commonly used to describe a 3DS game card or any other device used to slot into the expansion slots of a handheld, even flash kit adapters.
Card1
A type of Cartridge which contains a backup EEPROM/battery to hold game saves. EEPROMs that hold game saves have a specific size (256KB and 512KB); games requiring more space or faster access are using the Card2 type. When using a Card1 ROM dump with a 3DS flashcart, an external save file is created to save the game progress (filename.sav).
Card2
A type of Cartridge which does not contain a backup EEPROM/battery to hold game saves. The game progress is stored directly in the same chipset holding the game data, located at the end of the game's data, and can use all of the chipset's remaining free space. When using a Card2 ROM dump with a 3DS flashcart, no external save file is created and the game progress is saved directly into the game image (filename.3ds or filename.3dz).
CCI
CTR Cart Image. The official format used for ROM images.
CFA
CTR File Archive. Official format. Contains data relating to a CXI (the main executable). Common examples are the electronic manual and system updates.
Citra
An emulator that emulates a 3DS console. Mostly used for 3DS homebrew for now. The first emulator to get a 3DS game (Ocarina of Time 3D) working.
Clean dump
A ROM dump that has not been modified from its original form on the cartridge.
Crash
A unexpected fault (bug) in a software that will cause it to halt immediately. A crashed piece of software can not be recovered and must be re-started.
Crack
An unofficial patch released by an individual or group which is meant to be applied to a piece of software to remove certain restrictions, features, or anti-piracy techniques. For example, a time restriction on an official demo piece of software.
Custom Firmware (CFW)
Firmware that is patched to provide additional features, such as the ability to install CIA files. Most often used in combination with EmuNAND.
CXI
CTR Executable Image. Official format. Contains the executable code for ARM11 (aka the actual game). Is combined with CFAs (data containers) to form a CCI (ROM image). Can only be played directly on development consoles.

D

Demo
A trial version of a software or game usually released by the developers of the software for promotional purposes. Demo software almost always has restrictions such as a time limit, lack of features or the inability to perform certain functions.
devkitARM
A port of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), which includes compilers for C and C++ and related utilities. Used to compile code for ARM processors.
devkitPro
A collection of toolchains used for homebrew development.
Dev Menu (dEVMEN)
A special 3DS application used by developers only. It has various functions, such as installing CIA files. Normally only available on 3DS development consoles.
Downgrade
The opposite of an upgrade: reverting to an older system menu version. Generally requires a hardware modification or an already vulnerable system.
Download Play
A system in the DS and 3DS that allows part of certain games to be "downloaded" to another (3)DS console. Allows for single-cartridge multiplayer, but is usually more limited than multi-cart multiplayer.
Dump
Synonym of ROM. The term "dumping" is a method of backing up an original cartridge to a PC.

E

Emulator
A program that replicates the functions of a piece of hardware in order to run the software designed for it on another platform.
EmuNAND
Emulated NAND; also known as Redirected NAND (RedNAND). A technique where access to the internal NAND (flash memory) of the console is redirected to another location, such as the SD card. This has various advantages, such as being able to update the EmuNAND to the latest system menu version while still keeping the console itself on an old version. It is also more resistant to bricks since the EmuNAND can be replaced if broken. An EmuNAND is usually created by dumping the console's internal NAND (known as SysNAND).
eShop
An online store for the Nintendo 3DS and Wii U where digital games, demos, and other things can be downloaded.
Exploit
A piece of software designed to take advantage of a flaw in a system to run unauthorized code.

F

Firmware
The code that a device runs from. A device which allows for firmware upgrades means that a new version of the device doesn't need to be bought to get new features.
Flash Memory
Storage space that is stored on a chip instead of a disk that must be read like a harddrive. Contains no moving parts. Can be used either as internal memory like the 3DS, or can be used as a portable storage device like thumb drives or SD cards.

G

Gateway 3DS
A 3DS flash cart, notable for being the first to support 3DS ROMs. Comes with a blue cart (an R4 clone) which is used to run an exploit which enables the primary red cart. The red cart is then used to run EmuNAND and play 3DS ROMs.
Good ROM/dump
this term was originally used for ROMs that were validated by the GoodTools. But we sometimes also use this term for ROMs that are in the scene release lists if their CRC match.
GUI
Acronym for "Graphical User Interface". Basically means there is more than text on the screen.

H

Hack
Modification of a file or a system. For example, a 'ROM hack' means a 'modified ROM'.
Homebrew
A homebrew application is an unofficial application programmed at home, often by hobby coders.
Home Menu
The main menu of the 3DS, seen when the console is launched. From here, games and other applications can be launched. It can be accessed at any time through the Home button on the console. Later system menu versions allow users to change the theme of the menu.

I

IronHax
Exploit for the eShop game IronFall: Invasion.

J

K

Kernel mode
A mode in which processes have full control over all hardware and may access all memory addresses.

L

LAN
Acronym for "Local Area Network". Connects a small, local areas together.
LCD
Acronym for "Liquid Crystal Display". Uses a smaller amount of power making it suitable for battery powered devices.
Linked NANDs
When dumping the SysNAND to an EmuNAND, both NANDs will share the same folder on the SD card and are considered "linked". While linked, changes done to one will affect the other as well. The NANDs can be unlinked by formatting either NAND, which changes the directory used on the SD card for that NAND.
Lua
A lightweight programming language used for various purposes. Homebrew can be written in this language and run via a Lua interpreter like Lua Player Plus.

M

Micro SD
A smaller version of the SD card. About half the size of a mini SD and about a quarter of the size of a normal SD card. Can hold just as much data as a normal SD card.
MPO
Multi-picture object. An image format used by the 3DS to store 3D images. The file essentially contains multiple JPG files (2 for the 3DS), which can be extracted if needed.
MT-Card
A 3DS flashcart. Clone of the Gateway 3DS.

N

NAND
Type of flash memory that is used by the Nintendo 3DS as internal storage. Sometimes also used to refer to the contents of the storage.
new Nintendo 3DS
An updated model of the Nintendo 3DS which has double memory, improved screens, a second analog stick, and more. There is also the new Nintendo 3DS XL as an updated version of the regular XL, although the screens of the normal version are slightly larger to begin with.
NFO
NFO, an abbreviation of "info". "NFO" files are ASCII (See ASCII) text files with the filename extension ".nfo". These are commonly found alongside pirate (See Piracy) software releases by individuals or groups. They contain information about the release and other useful and useless information.
Ninjhax
An exploit for the 3DS game Cubic Ninja. Can be used to execute specific homebrew applications. First released game-based exploit.
Nintendo 2DS
A revised Nintendo 3DS that adapts a revised form factor and drops support for 3D. Mostly intended for younger children who are more likely to drop the console and are harmed by the 3D effect. Was only released in North America and Europe.
Nintendo 3DS
The latest handheld from Nintendo. The first handheld to display 3D pictures without needing 3D glasses.
Nintendo 3DS XL
A revised, larger version of the Nintendo 3DS. Features a 90% larger screen than the original, a larger battery, and several other improvements. Known as the 3DS LL in Japan.
Nintendo Network
A network of servers by Nintendo used for online play.
Nintendo Network ID (NNID)
An unique ID used by people to identify on the Nintendo Network. Intended to replace the older friend codes system. Can only be used on 1 Nintendo 3DS console at a time.

O

P

Patch
When a large program is released that has a bug, a patch is usually released instead of having the user download the whole program again. The patch is then applied to the existing data and fixes the bug.
Piracy
The act of illegally acquiring copyrighted materials, by downloading it from the internet without permission of the author.
Pirate
One who engages in piracy.

Q

R

Release Group
A group that releases ROMs on the internet. A group is given credit to a ROM when they release it.
ROM
Acronym of "Read-only memory". A ROM is a piece of flash memory that contains permanently stored data that cannot be added to, modified or removed. The term ROM is also used to describe a ROM from, for example a game cartridge that has been extracted and backed up to a single file on a PC. This method of extraction can also be referred to as "dumping" and the end file is commonly called a "dump".
ROP
Return-oriented programming. A hacking technique where the attacker gains control over a program's call stack and uses it to overwrite return addresses. This directs the control flow of the program to unintended locations. Multiple returns are chained together with the eventual goal of reaching arbitrary code execution.
ROP loader
A piece of software used to load a ROP chain.

S

SD Card
Acronym for Secure Digital cards. It is a flash memory card format used in the 3DS and several other portable devices.
SDHC
SD High Capacity. Refers to SD cards that are larger than 2GB, up to 32GB.
SDXC
SD eXtended Capacity. Refers to SD cards that are larger than 32GB, up to 2TB. The 3DS supports SDXC cards up to 128GB if formatted as FAT32.
Sky3DS
A 3DS flashcart that works by imitating an actual 3DS game card 1:1. This has the advantage of not needing an exploit, but limits the functionality to that of a regular cart (No Homebrew, EmuNAND etc). Switching between games is done through a physical button on the cart, so people have to cycle through the games one by one. Used to have a 10 games limit, but this was later removed with an updated "blue button" cart. The old "red button" carts were also given a patch to remove their limit.
SKATER
Code name for the web browser of the new Nintendo 3DS.
.smdh file
File format that stores an icon and author data for a homebrew app or cia.
spider
Code name for the web browser of the (non-new) Nintendo 3DS.
SysNAND
The internal NAND (flash memory) of the 3DS console. Stores things like the System menu and settings.
System Menu
The menu used on the 3DS.

T

Trim
"Trimming" means to remove "dummy data" from a ROM file in order to decrease the file size. Contrary to how the majority of people think it works. It simply does not compress the ROM in any way. It's just a method of removing dummy (garbage/filler) data from the file which can be anything from a few KB to a few MB.
TronDS
An emulator that emulates a 3DS console.

U

USB
Acronym for "Universal Serial Bus". A connection interface that is now the most common used amongst external computer peripherals, including MP3 players, external hard drives, keyboards and mice. USB is widely used because of its simple connection, easy to use socket, its data transfer speeds and its "plug 'n' play" reliability. Many GBA flash kits use USB.
User mode (userland)
A mode in which processes have limited access to system resources. Specifically, processes may not directly access hardware or use memory dedicated to other processes or the kernel. Most processes run in this mode.

V

Virtual Console (VC)
A service on the Nintendo 3DS offering you to download old console games to be played from their own application in the home menu. The games use an internal emulator which is tweaked to the game itself.

W

Wi-Fi
Short for "Wireless fidelity". Wi-Fi is a type of wireless LAN. This makes it possible for a Wi-Fi enabled device, such as the Nintendo 3DS, to access an internet connection shared via a wireless LAN without any additional wires or connections.

X

XORPad
A generic file used to decrypt 3DS games. The file is "XORed" with the original encrypted ROM (.3ds/.3dz) to create the unencrypted ROM (.cia)

Y

Z